The genome is the collection of the complete set of genes, which have been described as a blueprint for building a functional organism. However, genes are transcribed into RNA and their regulation and expression has profound effects of how an organism is built. The transcriptome is the complete set of RNA transcripts, which may be an entirely different population depending on biological conditions. This makes the transcriptome extremely dynamic and more reflective of a biological condition unlike the genome which is fixed. The study of the transcriptome is called transcriptomics and is a global view of all gene expression patterns.
One of the first studies of the transcriptome revealed the large scale change in mRNA levels when yeast were grown in different environments.
The application of DNA microarrays to the transcriptome of cancer