Immunology

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Glossary

Actinomycin D
antibiotic that blocks RNA and DNA synthesis
Adaptive cells
those that rearrange their genes
ADCC
antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. A process by which white blood cells recognise the stems of antibodies attached to a cell and then attack it
Allele
a version of the gene. There are two alleles for the enzyme that produces colour in four o'clock flower, one that codes for an enzyme used to make red pigment and a different DNA sequence that does not produce a functional enzyme, leaving the flower white
Allograft
transfer of tissue or organs from a member of a species to another member of the same species
ALT
associated lymphoid tissue. MALT (mucosal), GALT (gut), BALT (bronchial), NALT (nasal)
Aminopterin (methotrexate)
drug that blocks DNA synthesis and thus interferes with cell division
Anaphylaxis
a state of shock whereby the blood pressure drops because of excess TH2 response trigger by a Type I hypersensitivity reaction
Anergy
a state where an adaptive immune cell is quiescent and unresponsive
Antibody
a soluble immunoglobulin
Antigen
a molecule that can bind to an antibody, B cell receptor or T cell receptor
APC
antigen presenting cell. Cells that present antigen on MHC II to TH cells.
Apoptosis
programmed cell death
Apoptosome
heptameric complex assembled to initiate apoptosis
ATP
adenosine triphosphate, directly supplies