Updated 2018 May 20th

Error bars may show confidence intervals, standard errors, and standard deviations. Each feature conveys a different message and this paper on error bars in experimental biology explains it very nicely. For this post I will demonstrate how to plot error bars that show the standard error (SE) or standard error of the mean (SEM). I found two nice resources that demonstrate the plotting of error bars with R and in this post I illustrate them with simple examples. The first method is from the website of James Holland Jones, where he wrote an R function that plots arrows to a bar plot.

# generate some random numbers set.seed(31) a <- runif(10, 0, 10) b <- runif(10, 0, 10) c <- runif(10, 0, 10) # store them as a data.frame df <- data.frame(a=a, b=b, c=c) # function for error bars error.bar <- function(x, y, upper, lower=upper, length=0.1,...){ if(length(x) != length(y) | length(y) !=length(lower) | length(lower) != length(upper)) stop("vectors must be same length") arrows(x,y+upper, x, y-lower, angle=90, code=3, length=length, ...) } # function for standard error of the mean sem <- function(x){ sd(x)/sqrt(length(x)) } # calculate means my_mean <- apply(df, 2, mean) # calculate sem my_sem <- apply(df, 2, sem) # barplot barx <- barplot(my_mean, names.arg=names(df), ylim=c(0,ceiling(max(df))), xlab='Class', ylab='Unit of measure') error.bar(barx, my_mean, my_sem)

The second resource I found on plotting error bars with R was from the Cookbook for R, which showed many examples using the R package ggplot2. Here is a simple example I adapted from their cookbook, using the same set of random numbers I generated above:

# install if necessary install.packages('ggplot2') # load library library(ggplot2) set.seed(31) a <- runif(10, 0, 10) b <- runif(10, 0, 10) c <- runif(10, 0, 10) df <- data.frame(a=a, b=b, c=c) sem <- function(x){ sd(x)/sqrt(length(x)) } my_mean <- apply(df, 2, mean) my_sem <- apply(df, 2, sem) # new data frame for storing the mean and sem mean_sem <- data.frame(mean=my_mean, sem=my_sem, group=names(df)) # larger font theme_set(theme_gray(base_size = 20)) # plot using ggplot ggplot(mean_sem, aes(x=group, y=mean)) + geom_bar(stat='identity') + geom_errorbar(aes(ymin=mean-sem, ymax=mean+sem), width=.2) + xlab('Class') + ylab('Unit of measure')

I had been using the first approach for plotting error bars with R but I think the ggplot2 plot looks much better (and with less effort).

Lastly, it has been over a month since my last post, though I have been updating old posts. I've been spending time writing my thesis and papers but I've also been preparing for a bigger-than-usual post, which I hope will be interesting.

## Update 2018 May 20th

Here's a third approach using ggplot2 and the stat_summary layer.

library(reshape2) library(ggplot2) set.seed(31) a <- runif(10, 0, 10) b <- runif(10, 0, 10) c <- runif(10, 0, 10) df <- data.frame(a=a, b=b, c=c) df_melted <- melt(df) ggplot(df_melted, aes(x = variable, y = value)) + stat_summary(fun.y = mean, geom = "bar") + stat_summary(fun.data = mean_se, fun.args = list(mult = 1), geom = "errorbar", width = 0.2)

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Attribution 4.0 International License.

What about when the length of the vectors are not the same

Using the ggplot2 solution, just create a vector with your means (my_mean) and standard errors (my_sem) and follow the rest of the code.

Very useful, thank you ðŸ™‚